We all know, on January 23, 2017, Oracle updated the Licensing Oracle Software in the Cloud Computing Environment document. The gist of the announcement was “When counting Oracle Processor license requirements in Authorized Cloud Environments, the Oracle Processor Core Factor Table is not applicable“. So, if you are running Oracle database on x86 Intel platform on-premise, when moving to AWS or Azure cloud, your available licensed CPUs are cut in half. Read my blog on this topic.

Can I run Oracle RAC on Public Cloud?

The answer is “yes!”. On AWS and Azure (for that matter any public cloud), you could use third party product Flashgrid to make local storage shared on all nodes, and have ASM on top. FlashGrid Storage Fabric turns local drives into shared drives accessible from all nodes in the cluster. The local drives shared via FlashGrid Storage Fabric can be block devices of any type including Elastic Block Storage (EBS) volumes, local SSDs, or LVM volumes. The sharing is done at the block level with concurrent access from all nodes. With ASM, you can choose normal redundancy (two copies) or high redundancy (three copies). I believe, this is the limitation of Flashgrid as of today, you can have up to 3 node RAC using Flashgrid. Read more.

Oracle RAC in AWSOn Oracle cloud, you can have a two node RAC natively using Oracle DBaaS service. If you need bigger capacity servers, Oracle Bare Metal Cloud service is the answer. With Bare Metal Cloud, you can have up to 72 OCPU and 1TB of memory per node. With bare metal also, only two node RAC is possible – no more than two nodes.

What about licensing RAC on Public Cloud?

The Licensing Oracle Software in the Cloud Computing Environment document has a link to “eligible” technologies and products on the cloud (this document also updated on Jan 23, 2017). I see Database SE, SE2, EE, even Partitioning, Advanced Security, Advanced Compression listed, but I do not see Oracle RAC. Does this mean, from a licensing standpoint, Oracle RAC on AWS & Azure using Flashgrid is not allowed?

Note, Oracle’s official document is under review. Hopefully, some clarity comes out in the next few days.

How about In-Memory, Multitenant and Active Dataguard?

I also do not see these technologies listed in the document. So, are these products/technologies not allowed on Azure/AWS? I know technically it is possible to create a Container Database with the In-memory option and Active Dataguard (together or separate) on AWS EC2 or Azure Compute (both IaaS). Question is, am I allowed to do so? Amazon’s own white paper, Oracle Advanced Architectures include Active Dataguard in multiple scenarios. This white paper was published in April 2016 though, much before Oracle updating the Cloud Licensing Document!


Oracle *daily* TidBits” (#oratidbit) published on Facebook, Twitter and Google+ during weekdays in May 2017. You will also see these tidbits, one tidbit at a time, for each page refresh on the right side of this blog as well… Hope you find these helpful to learn something new or to remind you of its existence and use.

#oratidbit #orcldb #db12cR2 Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle GI software is available as an image file for download and installation. Extract the image software into the directory where you want your Grid home to be located, and then run the gridSetup.sh script to start Oracle GI installation.
#oratidbit #orcldb #db12cR2 Starting with 12.2 RAC, SYSRAC administrative privilege is the default mode for connecting to the database by the clusterware agent on behalf of the Oracle RAC utilities such as srvctl.
#oratidbit #orcldb #db12cR2 In 12.2 manually upgrade the database using dbupgrade shell script instead of the catctl.pl perl script. dbupgrade starts up catctl.pl.
#oratidbit #orcldb #db12cr2 Optimizer Statistics Advisor analyzes how optimizer statistics are gathered, and then makes recommendations.
#oratidbit #orcldb #db12cr2 Use OCLUMON to query the Cluster Health Monitor repository to display node-specific metrics for a specified time period.
#oratidbit #orcldb #db12cr2 Each Oracle Cluster Health Advisor daemon (ochad) monitors the operating system on the cluster node and optionally, each Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) database instance on the node.
#oratidbit #orcldb #db12cr2 Oracle Clusterware uses policy-based management of servers and resources used by Oracle databases or applications.
#oratidbit #orcldb #db12cr2 Rapid Home Provisioning is a method of deploying software homes to any number of nodes in a data center from a single cluster, and also facilitates scaling, patching, and upgrading software.
#oratidbit #orcldb To administer Oracle multitenant container database, you must have the CDB_DBA role.
#oratidbit #orcldb DBCA can be used to create standby databases for non-multitenant primary databases using command qualifier createDuplicateDB. https://docs.oracle.com/database/122/SBYDB/creating-oracle-data-guard-physical-standby.htm#SBYDB-GUID-7C55FE8A-50C3-4601-9ADA-98BE6D65F1DD
#oratidbit #orcldb In an Oracle Database multitenant environment, the redo must be shipped to the root container of the standby database.
#oratidbit #orcldb An Oracle Data Guard far sync instance is a remote Oracle Data Guard destination that accepts redo from the primary database and then ships that redo to other members of the Oracle Data Guard configuration. Data files do not exist at the far sync instance.
#oratidbit #orcldb As of Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (, when a physical standby database is converted into a primary you have the option to keep any sessions connected to the physical standby connected, during the switchover/failover operation if STANDBY_DB_PRESERVE_STATES initialization parameter is set.
#oratidbit #orcldb As the main function of a database upgrade is to create a new data dictionary, the upgrade can be tested for most of the upgrade functionality by using a copy of the database’s SYSTEM/SYSAUX tablespaces and ROLLBACK SEGMENT tablespace and marking all other tablespaces OFFLINE. This allows realistic timings to be obtained without having to copy an entire database.
#oratidbit #orcldb Make all tablespaces OFFLINE NORMAL or make READ ONLY except for SYSTEM, SYSAUX and those containing rollback segments prior to upgrade. This way if upgrade fails, only the SYSTEM and rollback datafiles need to be restored rather than the entire database.
#oratidbit #orcldb In 12c, the RMAN duplicate command has new “NOOPEN” option which clones the database but does not open the auxiliary. This feature can be used to duplicate a database to higher version.
#oratidbit #orcldb To compare the status of database before and after an upgrade, use the script dbupgdiag.sql available in MOS# 556610.1.
#oratidbit #orcldb Adaptive query optimization enables the optimizer to make run-time adjustments to execution plans and discover additional information that can lead to better statistics. http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TGSQL/tgsql_optcncpt.htm#TGSQL221
#oratidbit #db12cR2 OEM Database Express Single Port Access for Multitenant Databases is enabled by executing “dbms_xdb_config.SetGlobalPortEnabled(TRUE)”. In the Login page, you can specify the PDB to which you want to connect. If it’s not specified, EM Express connects to the root container.
#oratidbit #orclebs To support online patching, Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12.2 uses a database service. On code levels lower than AD-TXK Delta 9, the service name is always ‘ebs_patch’. From the AD-TXK Delta 9 code level, the service name is defined by the value of the context variable ‘s_patch_service_name’.

Oracle *daily* TidBits” (#oratidbit) published on Facebook, Twitter and Google+ during weekdays in April 2017. You will also see these tidbits, one tidbit at a time, for each page refresh on the right side of this blog as well… Hope you find these helpful to learn something new or to remind you of its existence and use.

#oratidbit #orcldb Multiple Instance Redo Apply (MIRA), a #DB12cR2 feature, enables redo apply on all or some standby instances with RAC configuration.
#oratidbit #orcldb Init parameter ARCHIVE_LAG_TARGET forces a log switch after the specified amount of time (minutes) elapses. The typical value is 1800 (30 minutes). Low values can result in frequent log switches, which could degrade performance.
#oratidbit #orcldb Init parameter AWR_SNAPSHOT_TIME_OFFSET specifies an offset for the AWR snapshot start time. AWR snapshots normally start at the top of the hour. On large systems with many databases, this setting can help to avoid CPU spikes at the top of the hour.
#oratidbit #orcldb Init parameter AWR_SNAPSHOT_TIME_OFFSET has a special value 1000000, which is automatic mode, in which the offset is based on the database name.
#oratidbit #orcldb If init parameter CPU_COUNT is set to 0 (its default setting), then Oracle Database continuously monitors the number of CPUs reported by the operating system and uses the current count. If CPU_COUNT is set to a value other than 0, then Oracle Database will use this count rather than the actual number of CPUs, thus disabling dynamic CPU reconfiguration.
#oratidbit #orcldb Use ASMCMD spbackup, spcopy, or spmove commands to back up, copy, or move an Oracle ASM SPFILE.
#oratidbit #orcldb The minimum MEMORY_TARGET for Oracle ASM instance is 1 GB. If you set MEMORY_TARGET lower, then Oracle increases the value for MEMORY_TARGET to 1 GB automatically.
#oratidbit #orcldb You can upgrade Oracle database directly to 12.2 from versions or later, and
#oratidbit #orcldb The COMPATIBLE parameter minimum value for 12cR1 database is 11.0.0 and for 12cR2 database is 11.2.0.
#oratidbit #orcldb To properly convert from an Enterprise Edition database to a Standard Edition database, perform an Export/Import operation. Use the Standard Edition Export utility to export the data.
#oratidbit #orcldb #windows Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software is available as an image file for download and installation. Extract the image software into the Grid home directory, and run the gridSetup.bat script to start the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
#oratidbit #orcldb #windows Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Database is supported on Resilient File System (ReFS). ReFS uses checksums for file metadata, and an allocate-on-write method to update data which minimizes the risk of corruption.
#oratidbit #orcldb #windows Oracle Database 12.2 is supported on Windows 7, 8, 8.1, 10, Windows Server 2012, 2012 R2. x64 only.
#oratidbit #orcldb DBA_GOLDENGATE_NOT_UNIQUE view displays all tables that have no primary and no non-null unique indexes. New in #DB12cR2
#oratidbit #orcldb #db12cR2 Oracle implicitly returns to the client application the results of SQL statements executed within a stored procedure, bypassing the explicit use REF CURSORs. This feature eliminates the overhead of re-writing the client-side code.
#oratidbit #orcldb Reference partitioning enables the partitioning of two tables that are related to one another by referential constraints. The partitioning key is resolved through an existing parent-child relationship, enforced by enabled and active primary key and foreign key constraints.
#oratidbit #orcldb I/O calibration statistics can be gathered with the PL/SQL DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO procedure. I/O calibration is a one-time action if the physical hardware does not change.
#oratidbit #orcldb A bigfile tablespace consists of a single data or temporary file which can be up to 128 TB. The use of bigfile tablespaces can significantly reduce the number of data files for your database. Oracle Database supports parallel RMAN backup and restore on single data files.
#oratidbit #orcldb Automatic data optimization (ADO) is a component of Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) that automates the compression and movement of data between different tiers of storage within the database.
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